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A new book recovers the work of scholars who helped establish greater understanding between religions.

By Jacob Soll

In 1698, the noted Arabic scholar and Catholic evangelical crusader, Ludovico Marracci published the first historically-accurate Latin translation of the Qur’an, as well as a refutation of the Muslim holy book—both of which he hoped could be used to help “fight Islam.” Since the Reformations of the sixteenth century, religious conflicts had been settled not only by the sword, but with the potent weapon of philology, the linguistic science that produced accurate versions and translations of holy and ancient texts. Philology had such force that new translations and interpretations of the Bible had helped split the Church. Marracci hoped that his accurate work would have the same effect in training crusading priests to dispute the word of Muhammad.

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As it happened, Marracci’s translation did not have the effect he intended, as Alexander Bevilacqua shows in his tour-de-force study of the origins of modern Islamic scholarship in the West and its central role in the Enlightenment, The Republic of Arabic Letters Islam and the European Enlightenment . Bible critics and burgeoning Islamic scholars from Paris and Leiden to Oxford used his accurate translation of the Qur’an not to fight Islam, but to study and appreciate it. His work became the basis of even more translations and historical works, ultimately leading to the founding of great schools and centers of Islamic languages and culture in Europe the eighteenth century.

Bevilacqua’s extraordinary book provides the first true glimpse into this story. In the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries, Montesquieu, Voltaire, and Gibbon studied and critiqued Islam along with Christianity, giving the study of Islam a new importance in Europe. The idea that one could equally compare religions was the beginning of a movement of religious tolerance that began with seventeenth-century religious scholars and made its way to the thinking of Voltaire, William Penn and Benjamin Franklin, who believed that Muslim theologians should have the freedom to preach their religion to the citizens of Philadelphia.

What this book shows is that the great philosophes may have been innovative thinkers, and they took Islam seriously as a religion, but they ultimately lacked the scholarly skill to excavate Islam in Europe. It was, instead, done by an often motley group of scholars who fought against remarkable odds to establish the field of Islamic studies. As we know today, this did not necessarily lead to a great understanding between religions. The forces of repression were never far from their scholarship and, contrary to Bevilacqua’s claims, the world of learning was not always a rosy affair.

Largest Croatian owned bank HPB and the Zagreb Stock Exchange (ZSE) signed an exclusive agreement

Published: 24.05.2018.

Largest Croatian owned bank HPB and the Zagreb Stock Exchange (ZSE) signed an exclusive agreement to encourage the development of small and medium-sized enterprises and finance through the capital market.

This is a program that enables small companies to access capital on the Progress Market by issuing securities. HPB will provide support and advice, and more favorable Bank loans and financial services.

Published: 23.05.2018.

On the HUP round Table Financing Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises: Where is capital for growth? was about encouraging small and medium-sized entrepreneurs to use capital market instruments.

"There is trend in loan growth in Croatia. But without the development of capital markets for small and medium-sized enterprises, the quality of growth is questionable " said Mr. Velimir Šonje, Director of Archival Research and Boris Centner, Member of the Board of Erste Bank.

The Progress Market is highlighted as an example of a private initiative, necessary for Croatian entrepreneurs, with emphasis on the importance of creating venture capital funds, which would support equity financing and encourage the reduction of debt financing by entrepreneurs.

Ljubljana and Zagrebačka Stock Exchange approved new authorized advisors for the new multilateral trading platform intended for small and medium-sized enterprises Progress.

The Ljubljana Stock Exchange approved 4 authorised advisors:

The Zagreb Stock Exchange has included a new company in its Register of authorised advisors:

The role of the Adviser is to prepare the issuer for functioning on the Progress segment of the MTF market, the preparation of the Document on the classification of securities of the issuer onto the Progress segment and the monitoring of the issuer after the listing of its securities onto the Progress segment for a period of at least two years from the date of listing so that the issuer fulfils the obligations and conditions as determined by the SI ENTER Rules and Rules of the Ljubljana Stock Exchange.

Published: 15.05.2018.

Ljubljana Stock Exchange is delighted to announce that on 11 May 2018 it joined the United Nations initiative called the Espadrij l´originaleCLASSIC Espadrilles white W0tXX
. The purpose of the partnership initiative is to promote and stimulate the capital market in the following key areas: transparency of the business of public companies, promotion of gender equality, promotion of the market of small and medium-sized enterprises, and the development and promotion of the capital market for financing environmentally friendly projects.

The Ljubljana Stock Exchange will actively participate in all of the above-mentioned areas with mechanisms for informing the public and organizing dedicated events. The activities of the development of the market for small and medium-sized enterprises will be implemented through the development of the MTF Market and the implementation of the educational and remediation content of the Partner Program for SMEs. Within the Progress market, we will develop and actively promote the green financing segment, as envisioned by the Green Bond Principals.

Fig 5. Synthetic communities additively induce the expression of phosphate starvation response marker genes in the plant.

(A) Average expression of a core of 193 phosphate starvation response marker genes in plants cocultured with synthetic communities in 4 growth conditions defined in Fig 2A . (B) Additive contributions of bacterial blocks explain synthetic community molecular phenotypes. Comparisons between the phosphate starvation response marker gene expression in (A) caused by synthetic communities, with respect to axenically grown plants and expected changes (y-axis) from purely additive effects of each block. In the plot, the 4 panels represent the 4 media conditions tested, with germination conditions as rows and Pi treatment as columns. Each point represents a synthetic community ( n = 14), and the standard error for the measured and predicted change is shown. The blue line represents the least squares regression on the points from each panel, and the grey shade indicates the 95% confidence interval on the regression line. R 2 is shown for each condition. For both axes, 0 represents no change with respect to axenically grown plants. Numerical values that underlie the data displayed in the panel are in https://github.com/surh/wheelP . Pi, phosphate; PSR, phosphate starvation response; R 2 , coefficient of determination.

https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.2003962.g005

We next explored the overall plant genome-wide transcriptional response to bacteria consortia, Pi conditions, or both. Our design allowed us to test both the response to synthetic communities and to individual bacterial blocks between and within conditions ( Materials and methods 3h). As anticipated, plants growing with bacterial synthetic communities on low Pi generally induced phosphate starvation responsive genes and modified the expression of immune system–related genes ( S9 Fig , S6 and CasadeiHightop trainers nero hviPg4ui
Tables) [ flipflopORIGINAL Pool shoes milky blue WyXtGIX
]. Overall, there was not a common response to bacterial presence, with only 45 and 35 genes being significantly up- or down-regulated by more than half of the bacterial blocks, respectively ( S6 Table ). The number of genes differentially expressed in response to different bacterial blocks did not correspond with the strain composition of the blocks; blocks P2, N3, and I1 altered the expression of the most genes, and blocks I3, N1, and P3 influenced the least ( S6 Table ). In particular, block I3 only altered the expression of 17 genes, despite being detected in plant roots and surrounding agar ( PumaBASKET CLASSIC DELUXE Trainers white CKhWncQA
). At the functional level, most of the bacterial blocks induced the expression of the plant defense response, specifically up-regulating genes for salicylic acid biosynthesis ( S10 Fig ), consistent with overall Bacteria versus No Bacteria comparisons ( MerrellGLOVE 4 Trail running shoes dusty olive vsgYmDTR
).

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